The goal of the Lee laboratory is translational breast cancer research. The main focus is the insulin-like growth factor pathway, with a major emphasis on the downstream signaling intermediates the insulin receptor substrates (IRSs) analyzing interactions with steroid hormone receptors (ER and PR), role in normal mouse mammary gland development, mechanisms of transformation of mammary epithelial cells in vitro and in mouse models, and roles in human breast cancer. Studies use proteomic (reverse phase protein assays) transcriptomics (microarray) and genomics (massively parallel sequencing). Basic mechanistic studies are complemented by preclinical studies with anti-IGF-IR inhibitors in cell line and primary human tumor xenografts, and biomarker studies in clinical trials. The Lee laboratory is also investigating the use of novel nanotechnology methods (ultrashort carbon nanotubes and gold nanoshells) for imaging and treatment of breast cancer. Finally, the Lee laboratory is using paired-end mapping of cancer genomes to identify structural aberrations associated with breast cancer initiation and progression.